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Before the Right Hon. Daniel Hawes. Joseph Percival. Henry Warner. David Brown Stewart.

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Pirateria, contrabbando ed eco Contraband, free ports, and Briti Lo studio si focalizza sulle reti informali della britannica South Sea Company e sul commercio degli attori informali. Questa transizione dal contrabbando al commercio legittimo permise ai mercanti britannici di impegnarsi nel commercio libero importando ed esportando merci e schiavi per la e dalla Giamaica verso altre colonie dei Caraibi. It focuses on the informal networks of the British South Sea Company and the trade of informal actors.

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The article explores how British legislators shifted Jamaican and Dominican colonial economies away from contraband trade by opening free ports in This transition from contraband to legitimate trade enabled British merchants to engage in free trade by importing and exporting an assortment of commodities and enslaved people to and from Jamaica to other colonies in the Caribbean world. I thank the editors of this issue and anonymous reviewers for their comments.

Earlier historians presented a rigid framework that must be reanalysed in order to show the reality of trading life within the region. Scholars have shown that in times of peace Caribbean colonies traded and in times of war, trade exchanges slowed, since privateers and neutral carriers disrupted pre-war trade patterns 1.

Much of this went undocumented, since the early organizers of this trade were pirates 2. Europe took an increasing interest in establishing official ports with naval officers, forts, and warehouses in the colonies to regulate and tax this expanding trade.

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Several historians acknowledge the pitfalls in studying contraband trade, namely that written records do not exist or survive, because commercial transactions were illegal. The people who carried out these illegal transactions are known as contrabandists, informal actors, and smugglers. Unlike merchants, these individuals took little interest in documenting their activities, because they did not wish to pay taxes and sought to undermine mercantilist laws governing colonial trade in the Americas 4.

Subsequently, the names of ships, arrival and departure dates, the name of the owner s and master of ships provide further insight into the shipping industry on Jamaica during British colonial rule 5. The Spanish crown awarded the asiento de negros to the Company between and The asiento or assiento refers to the legal contract awarded by the Spanish crown to individuals or foreign-chartered companies to transport enslaved Africans to Buenos Aires, Cartagena, Porto Bello, and Vera Cruz 8.

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Between andcontrabandists dominated the Caribbean trade via Jamaica. The Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica enabled British merchants to revive a legal trade that resembled earlier commercial efforts established by the SSC, but allowed for trade with neighbouring Danish, Dutch, French, and Spanish Caribbean colonies.

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The first purpose of the Company was to secure the asientowhich was awarded to the British crown after the ing of the Peace of Utrecht in The asiento was a legal document binding the Company to specific practices and conditions in regulating the trade Great Britain had asked for these concessions during peace negotiations, but Spain refused several demands. An annual fair was granted to sell British merchandise at either Cartagena or Porto Bello, therefore commercial transactions carried out at other times of the year were deemed illegal Harley collaborated with members of the Sword Blade Company SBCwhich was a chartered enterprise and founded into make hollow ground blade swords.

The Bank became the banker for the South Sea Company, overseeing its stocks and assets From its incorporation, four major problems plagued the SSC and its relationship with the Spanish crown.

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Second, SSC ships constantly flooded Spanish America with British goods, according to Spanish officials, they participated in contraband trade. Third, the payment of duties and taxes to the Spanish Crown were never prompt or accurate Finally, the directors of the SSC were corrupt and participated in various money laundering schemes in England and the Spanish Americas, which resulted in the infamous South Sea Bubble For example, the Acts required that vessels involved in the carrying trade operate in English-owned ships, with an English Master and a three quarter English crew in matters of colonial trade Naval shipping lists show that ships from the North American colonies and other English colonies such as Bermuda were involved and were hired out to transport goods and enslaved Africans to the Spanish Coast or elsewhere in the circum-Caribbean.

Furthermore, there were informal actors pretending to be under contract with the SSC, who appeared at the Spanish Coast with enslaved Africans. Christopher To combat this problem, the Spanish crown announced that the SSC would have to buy illegal enslaved people captured by the guardas costas for pesos for each pieza de Indias and illegal enslaved people were counted towards the annual total that the Company was obligated to deliver As a result, the war ships also transported contraband goods in their bottoms.

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In exchange for these items, Costa Rica transported cocoa from Cartago and Matina to markets at Porto Bello and Cartagena in exchange for enslaved people and British goods Other types of illegal goods included food items from Europe and the thirteen North American colonies such as butter, wine and beer sold to Spanish American coastal traders The factories were organized with a president, ant, warehouse keeper, secretary, a surgeon and an administrator.

Instructions to agents at Spanish ports were sent from the directors in England or from agents at Jamaica. For example, Matthew Plowes produced several documents to the Marquis de Barrenechea.

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These documents included financial statements, but more importantly letters and correspondence between local Company agents and Spanish officials in the Americas. The bribes were not petty.

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Plowes produced a note showing that one bribe included «a sword garnished with diamonds and a very exquisite musical clock» Another bribe was made with Not only were the ship captains bribing officials, but Plowes testified that the British men went to the richest mines and supplied workers with goods in exchange for gold and silver, and did not declare the metals to Spanish officials in order to avoid duties.

Brown assessed that «half of the silver exported through» Porto Bello was not registered, which she believed was the result of the British securing an order from the governor of Panama forbidding any re-examination of chests leaving the port. The other spy, Dr. Burnett, stated that English goods were distributed in Spanish America as «galleon goods or merchandise from the English permission-ship» Whether these men offered truthful statements to please the Spanish Crown, their s are incredible.

Bynaval officers recorded in the Naval Shipping Lists of Jamaica that the island imported and exported goods and enslaved peoples from Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Domingue, and the port of New Orleans. In some cases, naval officers recorded specific details of the cargo, showing that provisions consisted of herring, barrels of beef and pork, butter, Madeira wine, bottled beer, and soap.

Items exported from Jamaica to the French Caribbean colonies included alcohol, candles, earthen ware, enslaved Africans, and food Before the passing of the Free Port Act inall tropical goods such as rum and sugar had to be shipped to and redirected through Britain to non-British colonies or territories.

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John McCusker argues that North American distillers and merchants obtained French Caribbean molasses and rum, since France banned imports of French rum, promoting an exclusive spirit trade in French brandy. It is plausible that merchants on Jamaica aware of the demand for French Caribbean molasses purchased it on Saint-Domingue and transported it to English-speaking North America.

It is likely that Jamaican planters argued that the illegal importation of French rum was to taste and make comparisons between competing products. A mercantilist policy did not make it easy for Jamaican planters to obtain French rum or molasses from Britain.

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However, it is unclear the scale of this illegal trade, so it is difficult to learn the quantity of molasses or rum involved Frederick Smith argues that by improved techniques employed by British Caribbean planters and their managers resulted in increased quantities of rum. Smith notes that French competitors believed that they needed larger stills, the recipe of the «improved Jamaican wash», and raising the proof of rum in order to compete with islands like Jamaica The free port status allowed Dutch merchants to engage in a contraband trade with nearby Spanish colonies The growing movement within the Caribbean colonies to introduce free ports is an indicator of liberal and free trade policies were introduced to allow for merchants to trade beyond colonial boundaries.

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Clearly, Britain desired free trade laws, recognizing that residents of Jamaica, especially, had ly engaged in a contraband trade with Spanish and French colonies. Although Barbados was used as a refreshment station for the South Sea Company, the British Parliament did not legislate for this island to have a free port following the expiration of the asiento.

Post, the shift from Barbados to Dominica enabled British merchants to concentrate on trading with French colonies such as Martinique, Guadeloupe, and Saint Lucia Lord Rockingham became a sympathiser of Scots, whom he believed wanted to form a British identity. Improvement projects appeared around Scotland following the Battle of Culloden, enabling many Scots to recover from several Jacobite risings in the first half of the eighteenth century Lord Rockingham lobbied the British Parliament to return confiscated lands to Scots who wished to earn a livelihood in agriculture Lord Rockingham was largely responsible for introducing a of acts that regulated colonial trade in the Americas that benefitted Scottish merchants.

For example, he supported the Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica, which enabled many Scottish merchants to progress in regional trade by operating from Jamaican ports The emerging Scottish merchant community seized the opportunity to reorganize trade within the Caribbean world through Jamaica. Scots who had settled in Jamaica and other British Caribbean colonies before welcomed the Free Port Act because of the opportunities it seemed to offer While Europeans demarcated the Americas, beginning inby mid-eighteenth-century resident populations began to treat the Caribbean as an extension of Europe.

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The SSC was deed to violate English al laws and mercantilist policies, because it allowed Jamaica to become a transfer point for exchanging enslaved people and contraband in the Americas Whether the British monarchy or government were aware or even upset with growth of inter-colonial trade in the Caribbean world warrants further attention.

More importantly, recent scholarship on the role of women and enslaved Africans engaging in contraband needs to be addressed in Caribbean history There is much more to learn about contraband activities in early modern Caribbean history. In the case of Jamaica and Dominica, the Free Port Act of was an important piece of legislation. Britain desired free ports, recognizing that residents of Jamaica, especially, had ly engaged in inter-colonial trade, as determined by shipping patterns recorded in the Shipping Lists and the early commercial efforts initiated by the SSC.

Richard ed. John Lord Bolingbroke, member and Robert Benson member.

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She is co-editor, with Olatunji Ojo of Slavery in Africa and the Caribbean: a history of enslavement and identity since the 18th centuryLondon, I. Tauris, Gli articoli di «Diacronie. The works by «Diacronie. They can be distributed on the condition that you attribute the work to the author and licensor, you do not modify the original contents and you do not use them for commercial purposes.

The quotation of excerpts however is always allowed, in accordance with the law.

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